Name of the Enterprise/ Practice / Technology: Diversification of crop in upland from paddy to maize cultivation.
Name and address of the farmer: Farmers Group
Block: Sundargarh Sadar
District : Sundargarh
Initial Status: The name of the district “SUNDARGARH” signifies its beauty and abundant nature resources of the district. This is the land of hills and forest, rivers and fountains mining materials and bio-diversify and is famous for ancient tribal culture and hospitality. The Geographical area of the district in 9712 Sq. Kms., which is about 6.23% of the state. Physiologically about 50% of the total area of district is forest, which well distributed in all parts of the district. The entire Sundargarh district is coming under one Agro-Climatic Zone, That is North – Western & Central Zone. Basing on varieties in topography, soil hypo, rainfall pattern irrigation productivity the district has been classified into 5 (Five) agro-ecological situations. Red and yellow soils are mostly found in all blocks. So far Irrigation practices of the district is concerned, it is only 9.5% of the total cultivated area. It means only 80.5% of the total area under cultivation is rainfed.
The contribution of Agriculture forwards the district economy is maximum. Since the marginal and small holders of the district jointly constitute about 77.69%, most of them take up Agriculture as subsistence enterprise. Rice solely occupies around 68.53% of the gross cropped area and High yielding variety of rice occupies 69.57% of the gross paddy area & 47.68% of the gross cropped area. The other important crops of the district are, Black gram, Green gram, Arhar, Horsegram, Til, Stud, Mustard, Wheat Maize etc.
- Status of technology adoption
There is a village named “Gadiajore” in this district which is 21Kms away from the district HQ. The village is tribal dominated. There are 62 houses in that village with total population of 248. Agriculture is the main livelihood enterprise for them. They have four types of cultivated lands viz upland, medium land, low land and very low land. Up land is about 60%(80 acre) of total cultivated land. They grow short duration paddy in uplands, medium duration paddy in medium land and long duration paddy in low land and very low lands, Of course few vegetables in their backyard for their kitchen. They get 6-8q/h yield only from upland paddy. This will cost around Rs 3300 to Rs. 4400/ha. The cost of production comes around Rs. 3000-4000/ha. Merely their not getting profit out of it. Sometimes there is a chance of failure of the crop due to scanty rainfall.
- Crop area, yield & income
The total crop area is around 135 acre.The average productivity of the village was 6-8qtl./ha. upland rice
- Socio-economic status of farmer
The farmers were getting only the cost without any tangible monetary benefit from cultivation of upland paddy.
- KVK Intervention: KVK received one project on maize under ISOPOM scheme from AICMIP, OUAT, Bhabaneswar. Thirty seven(37) farmers of that village were trained in improved cultivation package and practices of hybrid maize. This was followed by full package demonstration including seeds, fertilizer and pesticides with contribution of farmers in land, labour and FYM components.
- Innovative extension approach – Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sundargarh exposed these farmers to successful maize cultivation sites inside the district with help of ATMA. Necessary technical literature was given to the farmers and CD show s were conducted to given them proper technological back stopping. Question answer session awas organized to clear the doubts of farmers regarding know how and do how. Linkage was facilitated for selling maize with traders of Sundargarh and Jharsuguda at prevailing market price.
- Details of the technology
- INITIAL LAND PREPARATION
Land was prepared by the beneficiaries farmers FYM applied @8-11qtl/ha.
FERTILIZER APPLICATION, SOWING AND INTER CULTURE
Seed was supplied by KVK @6kg/acre. Along with recommended dose of fertilizer i.e. @ NPK 120:60:40. Sowing was done in the presence of KVK scientist at spacing of 60X30cm. Hoeing, weeding , fertilizer application and earthing up was done two times at interval of 25days.
Cholorpyriphous applied at the time field preparation to prevent termite attack. Carbendazim was spread twice during appearance of leaf blight .
- HARVEST / YIELD
The yield varied from 16.42-18.41qtl/ha. with average yield of 17.41qtl/ha. Which was 22.86% more than state average.
Traders from nearby town from Sundargarh and Jharsuguda purchased grains @Rs.800/qtl. The net profit was Rs. 4409/acre.
- INITIAL LAND PREPARATION
- Adoption of the technology and benefit to the farmer: After being exposed to extension interventions made by KVK, the farmers in village Jadiajore village came forward for maize cultivation substituting paddy in their upland. 30acres were covered under hybrid maize giving yield 17.41qtl/ha. The total expense on production was Rs. 3223/acre. And net profit earned was Rs. 4409/acre.Socio economic condition improved since farmers used to get only their cost from upland paddy cultivation and hybrid maize gave them an opportunity to earn more from the same land situation. The trainings, demonstration, field day, farmers scientist interaction made them grasp the tit bits of cultivation of hybrid maize and its management.
- Farmers' reaction and feedback : The farmers of the village Jumojodi were surprised to see the extraordinary success in pisciculture. They appreciated the net profit by using intensive short duration culture practice with stunted yearlings. Most of the farmers who were having small backyard ponds took interest in the technology.
- Extent of diffusion effect of the newly adopted technology. Being inspired by the success of the enterprise, 5 more farmers in the village have started intensive pisciculture in their backyard tanks. Sri Behera has also taken one tank on lease and excavated a new tank of his own. Now, Sri Behera has become a successful farmer as well as a farmer promoter in disseminating the intensive short duration culture practice using stunted yearlings. He has also strengthened enterprises like dairy and maize cultivation to produce enough of raw cow dung for manuring and maize for fish and dairy feed. The success in pisciculture achieved in village Jamojodi has inspired fish farmers in other areas of the district. During last two years about twenty farmers in the district have adopted intensive pisciculture practice in 25 acre. Apart from the culture practice, 12 fish farmers have started yearling rearing in back yard tanks to provide yearling for culture in grow out tanks. Farmer groups have been inspired to take up activities like input supply, fish harvesting and marketing.
- Follow up action : KVK, Bhadrak has documented the success and has developed plan to promote the technology. KVK has planned trainings and demonstration to be conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra has oriented the fishery extension officers on this technology. KVK has also printed literature, done TV coverage of the technology for wider dissemination.